Studies
 
 

Measurement of ROS amount in cells

 
500 ㎍/mL Memoponin reduced amount of ROS increased by glutamate, excessive amounts of which can lead cell death through a process called excitotoxicity.
 

Measurement of Glutathione amount in cells

 

10 ㎍/mL of Memoponin maintained normal level of glutathione reduced by glutamate. 500 ㎍/mL of Memoponin even increased the glutathione level.

 

Measurement of Glutathione reductase amount

 

Measurement of glutathione reductase amounts in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells indicated 500 ug/mL of Memoponin increased statistically significant amount of glutathione reductase, an antioxidase, decreased by glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter that its elevated concentration is toxic to neurons. 

 

Antioxidative activity detection

-SOD-like activity: 1,000 μg/mL of Memoponin presented 10.68 % of SOD-like activity.
 
-DPPH radical elimination activity: 1,000 μg/mL of Memoponin showed 27.94 % of DPPH elimination activity and  1731.16 μg/mL of IC50 value.

Antioxidative activity detection

-H2O2 elimination activity: 1,000 μg/mL of Memoponin displayed 9.22 % of H2O2 elimination activity.
 

Measurement of Nitric Oxide in cells

- Memoponin prevented generation of nitric acid that leads oxidatively damaged cells to apotosis, inhibiting the apototis.

 

Evaluation of HO-1 Expression

: No activity of HO-1, an antioxidase in brain tissue

 

Measurement of Ca2+ amount in cells

- Memoponin reduced concentration-dependently Ca2+ amount increased by glutamate and exhibited the maximum decrease at 500 μg/mL.-

 

Measurement of AChE activity in mouse hippocampus (ex-vivo)

- Memoponin decreased concentration-dependently  amounts of acetylcholinestrase (AChE) in mouse hippocampus augmented by adding scopolamine.

 

Measurement of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential(in vivo)

- At the concentration of 10 ug/mL , 100 ug/mL , and 500 ug/mL, Memoponin increased statistically significantly mitochondrial membrane potential reduced by glutamate.
 

Assay of BDNF expression and CREB activation (in vivo)

-In mouse hippocampus, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) was confirmed to be raised by Memoponin. Also, pCREB  was increased if CREB, BDNF expression control factor, was activated. These support Memoponin can be helpful to enhance cognitive ability.